Founded on the farm Berkenrode in 1904. One theory is that the name is said to be derived from Venda ‘musina ‘, “the spoiler“, referring to copper, which softened the iron mined there. More probably the name means copper
The northernmost town in the country, Musina, lies 2000km from Cape Town and 16km from Beit Bridge. Musina was not only one of the largest copper producers, but probably also the oldest mining area in the country. There is a great deal of evidence that prehistoric peoples mined iron and copper here. The early miners used their women as labourers. At first they did not like the copper as it softened the iron. They later learned to use it for making cooking utensils and also fashioned it into ingots which became standard items of barter with neighbouring peoples and Arab safari traders. Apart from copper and iron, the mines around Musina also produce substantial quantities of magnesite.
The Musina area is rich with the relics of prehistoric people. In the valley of the Limpopo River stand several flat-topped remnants of an ancient eroded plain. To early man, these isolated, steep-sided hillocks made natural strongholds. Paintings on the walls of caves, old barricades, fortifications and piles of rubble, provide archaeologists with a valuable field of study. Mapungubwe was a stronghold of the long vanished Leya tribe. (Refer to History for details of Mapungubwe).
The road to the mineral spring holiday resort of Tshipise (Venda word meaning hot spring) crosses the Sand River about 1 Okm southeast of Musina. Exposed in the bed of the river here are some of the oldest rock formations on earth. Named Sand River Gneiss, the exposure has been dated at 3 800 million years.
Municipal Area: 64km 2
Main Places of Interest: Leboom (Boabab Tree), tree on rock, elephant trunk tree, nature reserve, Thsipise, Beit Bridge
Temperature: 10° C- 40° C: Rainfall: 150 –350mm/annum: Altitude: 1080
Agricultural Activities: Game, citrus, cattle, vegetables