The First Anglo Boer War

The final aim of the Great Trek was accomplished when the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State gained their independence from the British in 1852 and 1854 respectively. However on 12 April 1877 Shepstone annexed the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek and hoisted the Union Jack on Church Square in Pretoria. When their attempts at peaceful protest failed, the Transvalers raised the ZAR flag at Paardekraal on 13 December 1880, proclaimed a republic and reinstated the Legislative Assembly. Three days later the First War of Independence began when the British fired on a Boer commando near Potchefstroom.